The city's founders, organized as the Elyton Land Company, named it in honor of Birmingham, England, one of the world's premier industrial cities, to emphasize that point. These projects helped the city's economy to diversify, but did not prevent the exodus of many of the city's residents to independent suburbs. The New York Times has praised the city's food scene since King wrote the now famous " Letter from Birmingham Jail ", a defining treatise in his cause against segregation. The growth of the planned city was impeded by an outbreak of cholera and a Wall Street crash in The first business at that crossroads was the trading post and country store operated by Marre and Allen.
Downtown Birmingham is experiencing a renaissance. Birmingham, While excluded from the best-paying industrial jobs, African Americans joined the migration of residents from rural areas to the city, drawn by economic opportunity. The first business at that crossroads was the trading post and country store operated by Marre and Allen. Sand Mountain , a lower ridge, flanks the city to the north and divides Jones Valley from much more rugged land to the north. From the early 20th century, the city grew so rapidly it earned the sobriquet "The Magic City". The city's founders, organized as the Elyton Land Company, named it in honor of Birmingham, England, one of the world's premier industrial cities, to emphasize that point. In Birmingham celebrated its centennial with a round of public-works improvements, including the upgrading of Vulcan Park and the construction of a major downtown convention center containing a 2,seat symphony hall, theater, 19,seat arena, and exhibition halls. Between and , four large office buildings were constructed at the intersection of 20th Street, the central north—south spine of the city, and 1st Avenue North, which connected the warehouses and industrial facilities along the east—west railroad corridor. A few buildings in the area were slightly damaged. Steel purchased it and became the most important political and economic force in Birmingham. The valley was bisected by the principal railroad corridor, along which most of the early manufacturing operations began. Locally, the civil rights movement's activists were led by Fred Shuttlesworth , a fiery preacher who became legendary for his fearlessness in the face of such violence. On a Sunday in September , a bomb went off at the 16th Street Baptist Church , killing four black girls. In , the metropolitan area was made up of 7 counties, cities, and 21 school districts. New resources have been dedicated in reconstructing the downtown area into a hour mixed-use district. The growth of the planned city was impeded by an outbreak of cholera and a Wall Street crash in Representatives of rural counties also had disproportionate power in the state House of Representatives, and had failed to provide support for infrastructure and other improvements in urban centers such as Birmingham, having little sympathy for urban populations. The World War II demand for steel followed by a post-war building boom spurred Birmingham's rapid return to prosperity. Many of Birmingham's television and radio broadcast towers are lined up along this prominent ridge. Child labor at Avondale Mills in Birmingham in ; photo by Lewis Hine Birmingham is the only place where significant amounts of all three minerals can be found in close proximity. Red Mountain lies immediately south of downtown. In , the visitors bureau selected "the diverse city" as a new tag line for the city. These projects helped the city's economy to diversify, but did not prevent the exodus of many of the city's residents to independent suburbs. Birmingham-area voters had sued to force redistricting, and the Court in its ruling cited the principle of " one man, one vote ". Birmingham civil rights movement[ edit ] Main article: Major civic institutions such as schools, parks and museums, also expanded in scope. The earthquake was felt as far as Atlanta and neighboring states.
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