Buying merchandise, for example, may require meeting another person but usually needs only a very shallow relationship between the buyer and seller. Complaints and quarrels generally only arise in this type of friendship. The only reason these people are communicating is in order to buy or sell things, which is not a bad thing, but as soon as that motivation is gone, so goes the relationship between the two people unless another motivation is found. And his philia is not only that meaning. People who drink together or share a hobby may have such friendships. When he is talking about the character or disposition that falls between obsequiousness or flattery on the one hand and surliness or quarrelsomeness on the other, he says that this state: As long as both friends keep similar characters, the relationship will endure since the motive behind it is care for the friend.
For they already have [all] the goods, and hence, being self-sufficient, need nothing added. As long as both friends keep similar characters, the relationship will endure since the motive behind it is care for the friend. Friendships of utility are relationships formed without regard to the other person at all. When he is talking about the character or disposition that falls between obsequiousness or flattery on the one hand and surliness or quarrelsomeness on the other, he says that this state: This is the highest level of philia, and in modern English might be called true friendship. Friendships of the good are ones where both friends enjoy each other's characters. Cooper argues that this indicates: But the vicious person must not love himself, since he will harm both himself and his neighbours by following his base feelings. And his philia is not only that meaning. The first is based on the inherent goodness of acting for and being concerned for others "the excellent person labours for his friends and for his native country, and will die for them if he must" [a19—20] ; thus, being a wholly virtuous and fulfilled person necessarily involves having others for whom one is concerned—without them, one's life is incomplete: Some examples of these might include love of father to son, elder to younger or ruler to subject. Generally though, the bonds of philia are symmetrical. Buying merchandise, for example, may require meeting another person but usually needs only a very shallow relationship between the buyer and seller. Types[ edit ] Aristotle divides friendships into three types, based on the motive for forming them: For these are the goods desired and eagerly pursued by the many on the assumption that they are best" [b17—19] from that which should be admired ascribed to one who "is always eager above all to perform just or temperate actions or any other actions in accord with the virtues, and in general always gains for himself what is fine [noble, good]" [b25—27]. Complaints and quarrels generally only arise in this type of friendship. People who drink together or share a hobby may have such friendships. Altruism and egoism[ edit ] For Aristotle, in order to feel the highest form of philia for another, one must feel it for oneself; the object of philia is, after all, "another oneself. The action is thus good both in itself and for the effect it has on the agent's happiness. Clearly, however, only good people can be friends to each other because of the other person himself; for bad people find no enjoyment in one another if they get no benefit. In modern English, people in such a relationship would not even be called friends, but acquaintances if they even remembered each other afterwards. The philia also gives humans authentic friendship. This, however, confuses the nature of the action with its motivation; the good person doesn't perform an action to help a friend because it will give her fulfillment; she performs it in order to help the friend, and in performing it makes both her friend and herself happy. Not only is self-love not incompatible with love of others, but Aristotle is careful to distinguish the sort of self-love that is condemned ascribed to "those who award the biggest share in money, honours, and bodily pleasures to themselves. At the next level, friendships of pleasure are based on pure delight in the company of other people. Finally, he argues that one's friend is "another oneself," and so the pleasure that the virtuous person gets from his own life is also found in the life of another virtuous person.
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