The former is younger and single, with a higher educational level and a higher income. Our results have implications for behavioral interventions targeted at IBM. Shenyang is the provincial capital of Liaoning Province and one of the largest cities in China, with a population of approximately 8. Potential confounding factors, including age, monthly income, and education level, were all adjusted in the multivariable logistic models. Moreover, they might lack knowledge about the availability of free HIV testing sites [ 31 , 33 ]. Competing Interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Ways of seeking homosexual partners were collected from each subject individually; those subjects who self-reported mainly sought male sexual partners through Internet or GSN applications in past 12 months were defined as IBM, otherwise were defined as NIBM. This study also was the first to show that there was a great increase in the Internet seeking behavior in Shenyang during the six-year survey, in which the proportion of IBM increased from Internet has become an increasingly popular means for Chinese MSM to socialize and seek partners. Among 1, eligible MSM, Our findings also show that IBM who occasionally or never use condoms with casual male sexual partners had significantly higher HIV prevalence. They are also more likely to be the victims of sexual violence [ 32 ]. The majority of published studies on IBM were completed via questionnaires done online or over the smart phone application [ 4 — 7 ]. Interview Process Participants were interviewed by using a face-to-face, structured questionnaire. Potential confounding factors, including age, monthly income, and education level, were all adjusted in the multivariable logistic models. Moreover, they might lack knowledge about the availability of free HIV testing sites [ 31 , 33 ]. View at Google Scholar W. Compared with NIBM subjects, IBM subjects were younger, had more proportion of local residents, had a high school level education or above, and earned a higher income each. Eligible entry criteria were 1 being biologically male, 2 at least 18 years old, 3 self-reported as having anal or oral sex with another male in the past 12 months, 4 self-reported as never testing positive for HIV, and 5 being able to provide written informed consent. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with HIV. The year of was a boundary time point. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences were amplified and sequenced from drawn HIV positive specimens during to , in which Competing Interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper. With the development of Internet and mobile technology, the ways of socializing and seeking homosexual partners have changed dramatically with MSM. Trend analysis of IBM and HIV prevalence over time was performed by chi-square trend test linear-by-linear association. Furthermore, our results show that IBM tend to be single and local residents, in study site Shenyang city. They also thank those MSM subjects who participated in this study. The former is younger and single, with a higher educational level and a higher income. The total proportion of TDR 5. Our study results confirmed the findings from the four peer surveys. Ethical Issues A six-digit number was used to identify the participant and to link the questionnaire and laboratory test results with the participant.
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